Medical English M2

The exercise was created 2017-03-06 by sahelaminipour. Question count: 484.




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  • circulatory system blood and lymph production
  • home/o sameness
  • -stasis stable state
  • cardiovascular composed of the heart and blood vessels
  • lymphatic system returns excess filtered blood plasma from interstitial fluid as lymph
  • combining form of heart cardi/o
  • interpleural space mediastinum
  • mediastinum central compartment in thoracic cavity
  • perdicardium membrane around the heart
  • layers from inside out endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, pericardial cavity, parietal pericardium, fibrous pericardium
  • fibrous pericardium, what kind of tissue? dense connective tissue
  • above / upon epi-
  • within/inside endo-, end-
  • valve (heart) valvul/o
  • atrium atri/o
  • ventricle ventricul/o
  • septum sept/o
  • contraction phase of heart systole
  • relaxation phase of heart diastole
  • electrocardiograph recording of electrical changes of heart, electroradiogram.
  • blood vessel angi/o, vas/o
  • pusle the surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart
  • arteries arteri/o, arter/o
  • arteries carries blood... away from the heart
  • arteries, inside out tunica intima, basement membrane, internal elastic, tunica media, external elastic, tunica adventitia
  • vasoconstriction contraction, decreased blood flow
  • vasodilation relaxes, increased blood flow
  • aorta aort/o
  • small arteries arteriol/o
  • capillaries capillar/o
  • capillaries inside out single layer of endothelial cells
  • veins ven/o, phleb/o
  • veins carries blood... towards the heart
  • small venes venul/o
  • what differs veins from arteries no elastic membrane, thinner tunica media
  • valve (veins) valv/o
  • what are the valves functions in the veins? to prevent black flow
  • how do veins carry blood toward heart? by skeletal muscle contraction, gravity, respiratory activities and valves.
  • pulmonary/lesser circulation right ventricle - pulmonary arteries - lungs - pulmonary veins - left atria
  • systemic/greater circulation left ventricle - aorta - arteries - arterioles - capillaries - venues - veins - venae cavae - right atria
  • to supply blood vascularize
  • coronary circulation right coronary artery, left coronary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery & circumflex coronary artery
  • what shape has the circumflex coronary artery? semicircular shape
  • strata in arteries tunica
  • contraction constriction
  • suffix for small -ole
  • heart muscle proper myocardium
  • base of the heart is formed by... the left atrium and right atrium
  • apex is formed by... almost completely the left ventricle
  • network/threads/web-like pattern/construction mesh
  • to connect to mesh
  • drain to empty of liquid
  • periodically alternate, increase and decrease in quantity pulsatile
  • able to be done / possible feasable
  • in the order given respectively
  • following one after the other successively
  • different dissimilar
  • in agreement / accordance consistent with
  • related to the neck jugular
  • subclavian vein is... lymphatic
  • atrioventricular valve cuspid
  • interstitial space tissue space
  • interstitial fluid tissue fluid
  • blood pressure the force exerted by blood against the wall of a blood vessel
  • sphygmomanometer inflatable cuff used to measure blood pressure
  • cardiology medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system
  • cardiologist medical specialist concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system
  • pain angina
  • likelihood / probability predisposition
  • palpitation irregular fast heartbeat
  • difficult breathing dyspnea
  • arrythmia literal: no rhythm, condition: bad rhythm
  • fainting syncope
  • invasive operation / entering body
  • hardening of arteries arteriosclerosis
  • number/amount grows fast proliferate
  • condition, insufficient supply of blood ischemia
  • yellow fatty deposit/plaques ather/o
  • blood clot thrombus
  • detach / come off dislodge
  • attach lodge
  • foreign substance that reveals in blood embolus/emboli
  • localised tissue death infarction
  • special sort of bulge aneurysm
  • protrusion bulge
  • inside end- / endo-
  • localized necrotic tissue in the myocardium Myocardinal Infarction (MI)
  • dead necrotic
  • a lot of cold sweating diaphoresis
  • fast heart beat tachycardia
  • slow heartbeat bradycardia
  • prefix slow brady
  • prefix fast tachy
  • obstruction / blockage occlusion
  • repair of blood vessel angioplasty
  • bypass shunt
  • to go around circumvent
  • backflow reflux
  • slow sluggish
  • release / ease alleviate
  • ventricular fibrillation ventricular contractions = too rapid and uncoordinated for effective blood circulation
  • prefix reversing de-
  • restore heart beat defibrillator
  • diseaded heart muscle cardiomyopathy
  • suffix pathy diseased condition
  • reduce decrease
  • when blood comes together pooling of blood
  • dehydrated loss of water
  • heart malfunction, heart suddenly stops beating sudden cardiac arrest
  • heart block failure of electrical connection b/w atria and ventricles
  • blood vessel X-ray examination angiography
  • -graphy X-ray examination
  • hardening of aorta aortosclerosis
  • incision in vein phlebotomy
  • electrical impulses of heart, picture electrocardiogram
  • absence of rhythm / no contraction asystole
  • enlargement of atrium atriomegaly
  • involuntary contraction of blood vessel angiospasm
  • pertaining to atrium and ventricle atrioventricular
  • narrowing of aorta aortostenosis
  • -stenosis narrowing
  • blood clot thrombus
  • surgical repair of atria and septum atrioseptoplasty
  • -plasty surgical repair
  • -scopy visual exam
  • visual exam of interpleural space mediastinoscopy
  • inflammation of a heart valve cardiovalvolitis
  • hypertensive increases tension or pressure
  • high blood pressure without definable cause essential hypertension
  • interpretation reading
  • to make someone feel or think something instil
  • beginning onset
  • worry concern
  • to prescribe to lean towards
  • not good / favorable adverse
  • improve / increase enhance
  • decrease decline
  • always, with no exception invariably
  • to make a great effort strive
  • decline in cardiovascular mortality decrease in cardiovascular death
  • abnormal sound when listening inside body bruit
  • syndrome groups of symptoms that forms a distinct clinical picture indicative of a particular disorder
  • narrowing of kidney artery renal artery stenosis
  • one enhance the effect of another synergism
  • careful to avoid danger cautious
  • to examine to screen
  • to detect / find pick up
  • practically based on experiment, experience or observation empirical
  • for a long time in the long run
  • when treatment brings desired effect efficacious
  • to degenerate / impair deteriorate
  • lymphatic system maintain fluid balance, drain interstitial fluid & return to blood, transport lipids, immunity
  • lymphatic system cf lymph/o, lymphat/o
  • lymphatic vessels lymphangi/o
  • lymph cf lymph/o
  • lymph nodes cf lymphaden/o
  • spleen cf splen/o
  • thymus cf thym/o
  • tonsils cf tonsill/o
  • adenoids cf adenoid/o
  • adenoid lymphoid tissue in nasopharynx
  • gland cf aden/o
  • aggregation of cells gland
  • similar too, looks like suffix -oid
  • gland aden
  • thymus located above heart
  • what is lymph ECF, mostly leukocytes, collected from tissue
  • what are lymph nodes small knots of tissue, contains specialised leukocytes
  • behind the knee popliteal
  • right lymphatic duct lymph vessels from chest and arm join RLD, drains into right subclavian vein
  • thoracic duct lymph from all other body parts drains into the left subclavian vein
  • lymphocyte type of leukocyte
  • spleen function detains faulty blood cells and produces lymphocytes
  • thymus location in mediastinum, transforms certain leukocytes to T-cells (antibodies)
  • swollen tissues, enlarged tender nodes edema
  • fluid collects within peritoneal / pleural cavity ascites
  • medication that promotes urination diuretics
  • to build up to accumulate
  • fluid inside tissue interstitial fluid
  • ability of a membrane to let particle go through permeability
  • to encourage, stimulate, help promote
  • serous membrane inside abdomen peritoneum
  • blockage/occlusion/closure obstruction
  • stoppage of flow of lymph lymphostasis
  • -stasis stoppage of flow / diminished flow of substance
  • malignant disease of lymphatic system, primarily lymph nodes lymphomas
  • destruction suffix -lysis
  • tumor suffix -oma
  • enlargement suffix -megaly
  • malignant bad
  • benign no consequence
  • pertaining to the spleen splenic
  • tumor in thymus thymoma
  • feasible possible
  • because of in keeping with
  • involuntary contraction of blood vessel angiospasm
  • inflammation of blood vessel vasculitis
  • enlargement, elongation suffix -ectasis
  • collection of lymphoid tissue protecting body from respiratory infection tonsils
  • interstitial fluid collected by lymphatic capillaries lymph
  • thymus gland, above heart, stimulates lymphocytes
  • embryonic cell, gives rise to a lymphocyte lymphoblast
  • -blast embryonic cell
  • small oval/round bodies along lymphatic vessels that supplies lymphocytes to blood stream and removes bacteria lymph nodes
  • resembling suffix -oid
  • to become impaired in quality / function / condition deteriorate
  • unfavorable adverse
  • being in close proximity / nearby adjacent
  • based on observation / experience empirical
  • paleness pallar
  • beginning onset
  • achieving desired effect efficacious
  • increase in value, improve enhance
  • breathing respiratory
  • external respiration occurs in lungs, oxygen in CO2 out
  • internal respiration in metabolising tissue, exchange of gas in lung with tissue
  • breathing suffix -pnea
  • no breathing apnea
  • shortness of breath dyspnea
  • good breathing eupnea
  • diaphragm cf phren/o
  • important cardinal
  • big surface area prodigious
  • damage / failure in function impairment
  • blood vessel vas/o
  • conformity compliance
  • alleviate / to release fibrillation
  • paralysis suffix -plegia
  • oily flow seborrhea
  • oily substance sebum
  • small suffix -ole
  • dividing wall in nose nasal septum
  • sense of smell olfaction
  • when something branches into 2 (ex trachea) bifurcation
  • shell-shaped bone concha
  • drawing in / out by suction aspiration
  • during food / swallowing epiglottis... closes passageway of air / soft palate goes up and backwards
  • blockage obstruction
  • lower part of pharynx hypopharynx
  • glottis vocal apparatus of larynx. made up of vocal cord and opening between them
  • throat pharynx
  • windpipe trachea
  • voical box larynx
  • small airsacs in lung alveoli
  • different sort of characteristics diversities
  • rapid deep breathing caused by hyperpnea hyperventilation
  • nasal cavity cf nas/o, rhin/o
  • oral cavity cf bucc/o, or/o, stomat/o
  • tongue cf gloss/o, lingu/o
  • pharynx cf pharyng/o
  • epiglottis cf epiglott/o
  • larynx cf laryng/o
  • trachea cf trache/o
  • bronchus combining form bronch/o, bronchi/o
  • pleura combining form pleur/o
  • lungs combining form pulmon/o
  • lung + air cf pneum/o, pneumon/o
  • diaphragm cf phren/o
  • bronchioles cf bronchiol/o
  • inflammation of the bronchioles bronchiolitis
  • surgical repair of the bronchus bronchplasty
  • specialist in study of the larynx laryngologist
  • specialist suffix -logist
  • inflammation of the lungs pneumonitis
  • narrowing of lumen of trachea tracheostenosis
  • paralysis of diaphragm phrenoplegia
  • paralysis suffix -plegia
  • visual examination of larynx laryngoscopy
  • visual examination suffix -scopy
  • excessive flow of mucus from the bronchi bronchorrhea
  • bleeding from the lungs pneumorrhagia
  • septum dividing wall
  • thin hairs cilia
  • lines the nose mucosa
  • sinuses beside the nose paranasal sinuses
  • only used for respiration nasopharynx
  • used for swallowing oropharynx
  • drawing in / out by suction aspiration
  • how is sound produced? vocal cords vibrate against each other
  • closes way towards nose during swallowing soft palate
  • closes way towards trachea during swallowing epiglottis
  • pleura / pleurae serous membrane which covers lungs and divide them into lobes
  • related to wall of a cavity parietal
  • related to internal organ visceral
  • abnormally deep / rapid breathing hyperpnea
  • laboured breathing dyspnea
  • fast rate of respiration tachypnea
  • slow rate of respiration bradypnea
  • -capnia suffix that means CO2
  • measurement of alkalinity and acidity pH
  • swelling of the mucosa of the nose rhinitis
  • swelling of the sinuses in addition to the nasal passages sinusitis
  • inflammation of throat pharyngitis
  • sore throat pharyngodynia / pharyngalgia
  • -algia / -dynia pain
  • inflammation of larynx laryngitis
  • voice cf phon/o
  • conditions when somebody can't produce normal speech sounds aphasia
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease any disease that interferes with air flow in respiratory passage and impairs breathing
  • disrupt interferes
  • impairs deteriorate
  • blood clot thrombus
  • chronic inflammatory disease of airways asthma
  • giving medecine administration
  • medicine that dilates bronchus bronchodilators
  • pleuritis pleurisy
  • scape of fluid from blood vessel or lymphatic into tissue spaces effusion
  • yellowish / whitish substance from infected wound pus (pyl/o)
  • pus cf pyl/o
  • a lot suffix -osis
  • matter you cough up sputum
  • spit suffix -ptysis
  • destroyed alveoli which leads to rapid/difficult breathing emphysema
  • toxic substance asbestosis
  • spread out epidemic
  • cause of asbestosis inhaling asbestos particles in lung
  • inhaling silica dust silicosis
  • sudden contraction of larynx laryngospasm
  • sudden noisy expulsion of air from lungs cough
  • excessive dilation of bronchi and lung tissue bronchiectasis
  • -ectasis dilation
  • breathing is easier in upright position orthopnea
  • excessive breathing hyperventilation
  • loss of voice aphonia
  • aphasia communication disorder
  • cannot form new tissue aplasia
  • cough-relieving medicine antitussive
  • 2 layers of pleurae is fused. fibrothorax
  • bony muscular partition b/w oral / nasal cavities palate
  • paralysis of larynx laryngoplegia
  • -plegia paralysis
  • increase in severity of disease or in any of its signs/symptoms exacerbation
  • sound while breathing wheezing
  • accessory respiratory muscles supplementary muscle
  • dry cough unproductive sputum
  • exhale expiration
  • inhale inspiration
  • part of food which body makes use of nutritions
  • stoppage of blood flow hemostasis
  • -stasis stoppage of flow
  • waste product lungs CO2
  • waste product skin sweat, regulation of temp
  • waste product intestines fisses
  • fisses digested food
  • excretion remove waste products
  • small lesions tubercles
  • kidney cf ren/o, nephr/o
  • bladder cf cyst/o
  • behind the peritoneum retroperitoneal
  • medulla pyramids
  • concave part where blood vessels/nerves leaves / enters the kidney hilum/hila, hilus/hili
  • pelvis cf pyel/o
  • ureter cf ureter/o
  • wave-like contractions peristalsis
  • opening ureter orifice
  • folds rugae
  • urethra cf urethr/o
  • urethral opening urethral meatus
  • opening for bladder sphincter
  • functional unit of the kidney, tiny working units nephrons
  • globular dilation forming beginning of renal tubule & surrounding glomerulus bowman capsule
  • know of capillaries glomerulus
  • specialise in function & treating kidney disorders & urinary system nephrologist
  • urinary system in men/women and male reproductive system urologist
  • any disease of the kidney nephropathy
  • nephrons damage, kidney cannot function properly renal failure
  • failure in function impairment
  • urea prefix ur-
  • blood prefix em-
  • condition -ia
  • toxic nitrogenous substance urea
  • urea in blood uremia
  • severe for a short time acute
  • starts suddenly sudden onset
  • persists for a long time / end of time chronic
  • nephritis inflammation of kidney
  • inflammation in glomerulus and kidney glomerulonephritis
  • prolapse / drop down -ptosis
  • stone calculus
  • nephroptosis prolapse of kidney
  • stone suffix -lith
  • stone cf lith/o
  • presence of stone in kidney condition nephrolithiasis
  • formation of stone lithogenesis
  • -iasis condition
  • void to expell
  • -stasis stoppage of flow
  • watery kidney condition hydronephrosis
  • watery ureter condition hydroureter
  • awful excruciating
  • cup-shaped calices
  • stone takes up the shape of the calyx cast
  • water hydro
  • to cause bring about
  • inflammation of the bladder cystitis
  • inflammation in the renal pelvis pyelitis
  • inflammation of kidney and renal pelvis nephropyelitis
  • inflammation in urethra urethritis
  • cannot produce urine retention
  • cannot control flow of urine incontinence
  • urine analysis, examination of urine specimen urinanalys
  • sample specimen
  • changes alteration
  • insertion of tube in bladder catherization
  • ultrasound examination can show stone, alterations in bladder, enlargement of prostate glan
  • makes/give renders
  • visual examination inside bladder with endoscope cystoscopy
  • examination to see flow of urine voiding cystourethrography
  • xray examination inside bladder cystography
  • CAT scan of kidney nephrotomography
  • radiographic examination of kidney and ureters intravenous pyelogram
  • waste products directly filtered from patients blood hemodialysis
  • dia- through / complete
  • -lysis separation / destruction / dissolution
  • dialysis seperation of good and bad substances
  • correction fixation
  • lining of peritoneal cavity works as filter for waste products peritoneal dialysis
  • artificial opening stoma
  • artificial opening suffix -stomy
  • suturing suffix -rrhapy
  • fixation suffix -pexy
  • destruction of bone osteolysis
  • hemolysis blood dissolution
  • hemodialysis separation of waste products in blood
  • group tuft
  • incision in kidney nephrotomy
  • excision of kidney nephrectomy
  • pyelostomy surgical repair of renal pelvic
  • suturing of urethra urethrorrhapy
  • fixation of kidney nephropexy
  • route of pee opening of calyx - renal pelvis - ureter - bladder - urethra
  • reabsorption 2nd filtration
  • noct night
  • few oligo
  • small / insufficient amount scanty
  • expansion dilation suffix -ectasia
  • renal arteries arises from? abdominal aorta
  • reabsorption occurs between tubule cells and peritubular capillary network
  • excessive urination polyuria
  • absence of urine formation anuria
  • frequent excessive urination at night nocturia
  • difficult / painful urination dysuria
  • scanty urination oliguria
  • surgical incision to remove stone in renal pelvis pyelolithotomy
  • freeing a kidney from adhesion nephrolysis
  • absence of 1 kidney at birth renal agenesis
  • gradual downward displacement of kidney nephroptosis
  • blood in urine hematuria
  • urine / waste products in blood uremia
  • leukocytes, pus, in urine pyuria
  • glucose in urine glycosuria
  • cracks / grooves fissures
  • opening in which urine leaves body urethral meatus
  • urine accumulation because inability to urinate retention
  • rupture of bladder cystorrhexis
  • enlarged prostate gland, leads to narrowing of urethra urethrostenosis
  • to examine with hands / touch palpate
  • rupture suffix -rrhexis
  • bleeding suffix -rrhagia
  • hernia suffix -cele
  • expansion suffix -ectasia
  • lasts long time / difficult to get rid off persistent
  • treatment with hand manipulation
  • large / takes up a lot of space bulky
  • unable to be reached inaccessible
  • face down on stomach prone
  • face up on back supine
  • lumbar low back
  • lower edge of rib costal margin
  • upper border ridge
  • fossa acetabulum
  • fat cf lip/o ather/o
  • too much fat in blood hyperlipemia
  • lack of physical / mental ability disability
  • dislocation displacement
  • diminished amount -penia
  • intestines mesenteric
  • irreversible condition degenerative joint disease
  • bolus chewed food
  • pyloric stenosis failure of muscle fibres of pyloric valve to relax normally
  • near toward kidney adrenal
  • treatment achieves desired effect efficacious
  • connective tissue fascia
  • lymph doesn't flow lymphostasis

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