Social psykologi boken (sida 453)

The exercise was created 2020-12-17 by trikishash. Question count: 39.

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  • above average effect the tendency for people to rate themselves as above the average on most positive social attributes
  • action identification the level of interpretation we place on an action; low-level interpretations focus on the action itself, whereas higher-level interpretations focus on its utlimate goals
  • actor-observer effect the tendency to attribute our own behaviour mainly to situational causes but the behaviour of others mainly to internal causes
  • additive tasks tasks for which the group product is the sum or combination of the effort of individual members
  • affect our current feelings and moods
  • affective forecast predictions about how we would feel about events we have not actually experienced
  • aggression behaviour directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment
  • anchoring and adjustment heuristic a heuristic that involves the tendency to use a number of values as a starting point to which we then make adjustments
  • attachment style the degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships. differential styles initially develop in the interaction between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about self-worth and interpersonal trust
  • attitude evaluation of various aspects of the social world
  • attitude clarity when there is no ambivalence in attitude; the person feels clear about what attitude to hold
  • attitude correctness believing one´s attitude is the valid or proper one to hold
  • attitude similarity the extent to which two individuals share the same attitude
  • attitude-to-behaviour process model a model of how attitudes guide behaviour that emphasizes the influence of attitudes and stored knowlegde of what is appropriate in a given situaion on an individual´s definition of the present situation. this definition, in turn, influences overt behaviour
  • attribution the process through which we seek to identify the causes of others´ behaviour and so gain knowledge of their stable traits and dispositions
  • biographical memory concerns memory of ourselves in the past, sometimes over the life course as a whole
  • autokinetic phenomenon the apparent movement of a single, stationary source of light in a dark room. used to study the energence of social norms and social influence
  • automatic processing this occurs when, after extensive experience with a task or type of information, we reach the stage where we can perform the task or process the information in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and nonconscious manner
  • availability heuristic a strategy for making judgments on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind
  • balance theory Heider´s perspective specifies the relationship among (1) an individual´s liking for another person, (2) his or her attitude about a given topic, and (3) the other person´s attitude about the same topic. Balance (liking plus agreement) results in a positive emotional state. imbalance (liking plus disagreement) results ina negative state. nonbalance (dislinkg plus either agreement or disagreement) leads to indifference
  • bargaining a process in which opposing sides exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions, either directly or through representatives
  • body language cues provided by the position, psoture, and movement of others´ bodies or body parts
  • bona fide pipeline a technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes
  • brainstorming a process in which people meet as a group to generate new ideas freely
  • bullying a pattern of behaviour in which one individual is chosen the target of repeated aggression by one or more others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (the bullies)
  • catharsis hypothesis the view providing angry people with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more hamrful forms of aggression
  • central route to persuasion attitude change resulting from systematic processing of information presented in persuasive messages
  • classical conditioning a basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, aquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus. in a sense, one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation or occurrence of the other
  • close friendship relationship in which two people spend a great deal of time together, interact in a variety of situations, and provide mutual emotional support
  • cogntive dissonance an internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more attitudes or between their attitudes and their behaviour
  • cohesive group one where there are strong bonds among the members creating a sense of solidarity
  • cehesiveness the extent to which we are attracted to a social group and want to belong to it. all forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group
  • collective guilt the emotion that can be experienced when we are confronted with the harmful actions done by our ingroup against an outgroup. it is most likely to be experienced when the harmful actions are seen as illegitimate
  • collectivism groups in which the norm is to maintain harmony among group members, even if doing so might entail some personal costs
  • common ingroup identity model a theory suggesting that to the extent individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced
  • common-bond groups groups that tend to involve face-to-face interaction and in which the individual members are bonded to each other
  • common-identity groups face-to-face interaction is often absent, and the membrane are linked together via the category as a whole rather than each other
  • compantionate love love tjat is based on friendship, mutual attraction, shared interestsm respect, and concern for one antohers´ welfare
  • competitive altruism refers to situations in which individuals behave in a prosocial way in order to boost their own status - to show that they are even more helpful than others

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