Social psykologi boken (sida 456)

The exercise was created 2020-12-21 by trikishash. Question count: 44.

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  • injunctive norms norms specifying what ought to be done; what is approved or disapproved behaviour in a given situation
  • instrumental conditioning a basic form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes, or which permit avoidance of negative outcomes, are strengthened
  • intergroup comparisons judgements that results from comparisons between our group and another group
  • intergroup sensitivity effect when criticism of a group by an ingroup member is responded to more favorably than when made by an outgroup member
  • interpersonal trust an attitudinal dimension underlying attachment styles that involves the belif that other people are generally trust worthy, dependable, and reliable as opposed to the belief that others are generally untrustworthy, undependable, and unreliable. This is the most sucessful and most desirable attachment style
  • intimacy in Sternberg´s triangular model of love, the closeness felt by two people - the extent to which they are bonded
  • intragroup comparisons judgements that result from comparisons between individuals who are members of the same group
  • introspection to privately contemplate "who we are". it is a method for attempting to gain self-knowledge
  • introspection illusion our belief that social influence plays a smaller role in shaping our own actions than it does in shaping the actions of others
  • kin selection theory a theory suggesting that a key goal for all organisms - including human beings - is getting our genes into the next generation; one way in which individuals can reach this goal is by helping others who share their genes
  • leadership involves setting the group´s agenda and influencing others to act in ways that will achieve those goals
  • less-leads-to-more effect the fact that offering individuals small rewards for engaging in counterattitudinal behaviour often produces more dissonance, and so more attitude change, than offering them larger rewards
  • lineup a procedure in which witnesses to a crime are shown several people, one or more of whom may be suspects in a case, and asked to identify those that they recognize as the person who committed the crime
  • linguistic style aspects of speech apart from the meaning of the words employed
  • loneliness the unpleasant emotional and cognitive state based on desiring close relationships but being unable to attain them
  • love a combination of emotion, cognitions, and behaviours that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships
  • low-ball procedure a technique for gaining compliance in which an offer or deal is changes to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has accepted it
  • the Lure effect a technique for gaining compliance in which individuals are first asked to do something they find appealing and then, once they agree, are asked to do something they dislike
  • magical thinking thinking involving assumptions that don´t hold up to rational scrunity - for example, the belief that things that resemble one another share fundamental properties
  • matching hypothesis the tendency for individuals in a romantic relationship to be similar to each other in terms pf physical attractiveness
  • mediating variable a variable that is affected by an independent variable and then influences a dependent variable. mediating variable help explain why or how specific variables infleunce social behaviour or thought
  • mere exposure by having seen before, but not necessarily remembering having done so, attitudes toward and object can be formed
  • meta-analysis av average effect size observed across many studies is computed permitting assessment of the strenght of an effect. This allows for strong conclusions, in part because of the increased sample size and reduced error when many studies are combined
  • metaphor a linguistic device that relates or draws a comparison between one abstract concept and another dissimilar concept
  • microexpressions fleeting facial expressions lasting only a few tenths of a second
  • minimal groups when we are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria we tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as ourselves compared to those categorized as members of a different group
  • mirror neurons refers to system in the brain that appear to provide a neural foundation for our capacity to experience empathy
  • moderators factors that are treated as independent variables and can change the size or even direction of a relationship between two variables. By comparing an effect or strenght of a relationship under different conditions, knowledge of when and how effects emerge is gained, ensuring science is a cumulative enterprise
  • modern racism more subtle beliefs than blatant feelings of superiority. it consists primarily of thinking minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affect their outcomes
  • mood congruence effects the fact that we are more likely to store or remember positivie information when in a positive mood and negative information when in a negative mood
  • mood dependent memory the fact that what we remember while in a given mood may be determined, in part, by what we learned when previously in that mood
  • moral disengagement no longer seeing sanctioning as necessary for perpetrating harm that has been legitimized
  • multicultural perspective a focus on understanding the cultural and ethnic factors that influences social behaviour
  • narcissism an aspect of personality; persons high in narcissism have unjustified overinflated self-esteem, which leads them to focus on themselves while largely ignoring the needs and feelings of others
  • narcissistic rage intense anger experienced by narcissistic persons who have doubts about the accuracy of their exaggerated self-image when someone calls these views into question
  • need for affiliation the basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationship
  • negative interdependence a situation where if one person obtains a desired outcome, other cannot obtain it
  • negative-state relief model the proposal that prosocial behavior is motivated by the bystander´s desire to reduce his or her own uncomfortable negative emotions or feelings
  • noncommon effects effects produced by a particular cause that could not be produced by any other apparent cause
  • nonverbal communication communication between individuals that does not involve the content of spoken language. It relies instead on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language
  • normative focus theory a theory suggest that norms will influence behavior only to the extent that they are focal for the people involved at the time the behavior occurs
  • normative social influence social influence based on the desire to be liked or accepted by other people
  • norms rules or expectations within a group concerning how its members should (or should not) behave
  • obedience a form of social influence in which one person simply orders one or more others to perform some action(s)

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