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Social psykologi boken (sida 458)

The exercise was created 2020-12-21 by trikishash. Question count: 44.




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  • secure attachment style a style characterized by high self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. this is the most sucessful and most desirable attachment style
  • selective avoidance a tendency to direct attention away from information that challanges existing attitudes. such avoidance increases resistance to persuasion
  • self-affirmation refers to the tendency to respond to a threat to one´s self-concept by affirming one´s competence in another area (different from the threat)
  • self-construal how we characterize oruselves, which can vary depending on what identity is salient at any given moment
  • self-control achieved by refraining from actions, we like and instead performing actions we prefer not to do as a means of achieving in a long-term goal
  • self-depreciating putting ourselves down or implying that we are not as good as someone else
  • self-determination theory (SDT) a framework used to study motivation that involves two forms of human initative: intrinsic and extrinsic. people persist longer at tasks that they are intrinsically motivated to complete and gain enjoyment from, whereas extrinsic motivation to achieve awards or financial fains is less likely to promote happiness
  • self-enhancement the goal of increasing the positivity of one´s self-image
  • self-esteem the degree to which we perceive ourselves positively or negatively; our overall attitude toward ourselves. It can be measured explicity or implicity
  • self-evaluation maintenance model this perspective suggests that to maintain a positive view of ourselves, we distance ourselves from others who perform betten than we do on valued dimensions and move closer to others who perform worse than us. This view suggests that doing so will protect our self-esteem
  • self-promotion attempting to present ourselves to others as having positive attributes
  • self-regulation limited capacity to engage our willpower and control our own thinking and emotions
  • self-serving bias the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internal causes (e.g., one´s own trait or characteristics) but negative outcomes or events to external causes (e.g., chance, task difficulty)
  • self-verification perspective theory that addresses the process by which we lead others to agree with our views of ourselves; wanting others to agree with how we see ourselves
  • shining standards when we use one group as the standard but shift to use another group as the comparison standard when judging members of a different group
  • similarity-dissimilarity effect the consistent finding that people respond positively to indications that another person similar to themselves and negatively to indications that another person is dissimilar from themselves
  • singlism negative stereotyping and discrimination directed toward people who are single
  • social cognition the manner in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world
  • social comparison the process through which we compare ourselves to others to determine whether our view of social reality is, or is not corrected
  • social comparison theory Festinger (1954) suggested that people compare themselves to others because for many domains and attributes there is no objective yardstick to evaulate ourselves against, and other people are therefore highly informative
  • social contagion refers to the process by which emotions experienced by one person spread to others
  • social dilemmas situations in which each person can increase their individual gains by acing in one way, but if all (or most) people do the same thing, the outcomes experienced by all are reduced
  • social embeddedness having a sense of that you know other persons because you know their reputations, often by knowing other people they know too
  • social facilitation when the presence of an audience improves task performance
  • social identity theory addresses the consequences of perceiving ourselves as a member of a social group and identifying with it; predicts how we respond when our group identity is salient. Suggests that we will move closer to positive others with whom we share an identity but distance from other ingroup members who perform poorly or otherwise make our social identity negative
  • social influence efforts by one or more persons to change the behavior, attitudes, or feelings of one or more others
  • social learning the process through which we acquire new information, forms of behavior, or attitudes from other people
  • social learning view (of prejudice) the view prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes
  • social loafing reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work in a group compared to when they work individually
  • social networks composed of individuals with whom we have interpersonal relationships and interact with on a regular basis
  • social norms rules indicating how individuals are expected to behave in specific situations
  • social perception the process through which we seek to know and understand other people
  • social skills a combination of aptitudes that help individuals who possess them to interact effectively with others, thereby increasing their attractiveness
  • social support drawing on the emotional and task resources provided by others as a means of coping with stress
  • staring a form of eye contact in which one person continues to gaze steadily at another as a means of coping with stress
  • status the individual´s posotion or rank within the group
  • stereotype threat can occur when people believe that they might be judged in light of a negative stereotype about their group or that, because of their performance, they may in some way confirm a negative stereotype of their group
  • stereotype beliefs about social groups in terms of the trait or characteristics that they are belived to share. steretypes are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information
  • stress our responses to event that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, our physical or psychological functioning
  • subjective scales response scales that are open to interpretation and lack an externally grounded referent, including scales labeled from good to bad or weak to strong. they are said to be subjective because they can take on different meanings depending on the group membership of the person being evaluated
  • subliminal conditioning classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below individual´s threshold of conscious awareness
  • subtype a subset of a group that is not consistent with the stereotype of the group as a whole
  • superordinate goals goals that tie the interests of both sides in a conflict together rather than driving them apart. These are goals that can only be achieved by cooperation between groups
  • survey method a method of research in which a large number of people answer questions about their attitudes or behaviour

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