The exercise was created 2021-11-21 by mikabjorkman. Question count: 26.

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  • Capital budget lists the investments that a company plans to undertake the coming year
  • capital budgeting process used to analyze alternative investments and decide which one to accept. begins with forecasts of the project's future consequences for the fimr
  • incremental earnings amount by which the firm's earnings are expected to change as a result of the investment decision
  • opportunity cost the value a resource could have provided in its best alternative use
  • project externalities an indirect effect on the project that may affect the profits or other business activities of the firm
  • cannibalization when sales of a new product displaces sales of an existing product
  • sunk costs cost that have been or will be paid regardless of the decision whether or not the investment is undertaken, are not included in the incremental earnings analysis
  • fixed overhead expenses should not be included in the calculation of incremental earnings, associated with activities that are not connected to a single business activity, but affect many different areas
  • earnings includes non-cash charges, for example depreciation but does NOT include the cost of capital investment
  • payables mature the credit the firm has received to its customers
  • receivables measure the total credit that the firm has extended to its customers
  • trade credit the difference in the net amount of the firm's capital that is consumed as a result of these credit transactions, or difference between receivables and payables
  • Break-even analysis level of an input - the level that causes the NPV of the investment to equal zero, for example IRR
  • Sensitivity analysis shows how the NPV varies with a change in one of the assumptions, holding the other assumptions constant
  • scenario analysis considers the effect on the NPV of simultaneously changing multiple assumptions
  • expected return a weighted average of the possible returns, where the weights correspond to the probabilities, the return we would earn on average if we could repeat the investment many times, the balancing point of the distribution
  • variance and standard deviation used to measure risk
  • variance the expected squared deviation from the mean, measure of how to "spread out" the distribution of the return
  • standard deviation the square root of the variance
  • efficient market hypothesis implies that securities will be fairly priced, based on their future cash flows, given all information that is available to investors
  • firm specific news good or bad news about an individual company
  • market-wide news news that affects all stocks, such as news about the economy
  • independent risks uncorrelated, affects a particular security
  • common risks perfectly correlated, affects all securities
  • market risk premium the reward investors expect to earn for holding a portfolio with a beta of 1
  • Capital Asset pricing model CAPM the most important method for estimating the cost of capital that is used in practice

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