Legal English

The exercise was created 2024-06-12 by mehreenhayat. Question count: 77.




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  • Adversarial System A system where two opposing parties present their cases to an impartial judge or jury.
  • Inquisitorial System : A system where the judge plays an active role in investigating the facts of the case.
  • Codification: The process of organizing and setting down laws in a structured system or code.
  • Civil Code : A comprehensive written collection of laws often arranged by subject matter that guide a jurisdiction's approach to particular aspects of law.
  • Statutory Law: Laws created by legislatures or governing bodies, not developed through case law.
  • Common Law A system of law that relies heavily on judicial decisions and case law
  • Case Law : Law established by the outcomes of former cases.
  • Stare Decisis A legal principle that obliges courts to follow historical cases when making a ruling on a similar case.
  • Precedent : A legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court utilizes when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
  • Jurisprudence The theoretical study of law and the philosophical interpretations of its nature.
  • Equity The body of law that supplements and, in some cases, overrides common and statute law to achieve a just outcome.
  • Legal Doctrine Fundamental principles that form the foundations of a particular legal theory or belief.
  • Plaintiff The party that initiates a civil lawsuit.
  • Prosecution : The legal proceedings in which the state or government formally charges and brings a person to trial for a criminal offense.
  • Prosecutor An attorney who represents the government in criminal cases and seeks to prove the guilt of a defendant in court.
  • Appellate Court : A court that hears and reviews appeals from legal cases already decided by a lower court.
  • Oral Arguments Spoken presentations made in person by the lawyers of each party to a judge or appellate court as a part of an appeal.
  • Voir Dire The process of questioning potential jurors to ensure an unbiased jury. It's instrumental in both criminal and civil trials.
  • Moot Court A mock court where law students can practice trials and appeals.
  • Amicus Curiae: A person or organization volunteering information to assist a court even though they are not parties to a lawsuit. These people or organizations file amicus briefs with the court arguing for a certain position.
  • Injunction An order by a court to a party to do or not do something.
  • Bench Trial A trial without a jury, in which the judge serves as the fact-finder.
  • Discovery: The phase in a lawsuit where parties obtain evidence from the opposing party
  • Ex parte Legal proceedings that are conducted for the benefit of one party only and without notifying the other party
  • Jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear cases and make decisions
  • Personal Jurisdiction The authority of a court over the parties in a particular legal matter
  • Subject matter jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear and decide a specific type of case
  • Federal Question Jurisdiction A federal district court's authority to hear cases arising under federal laws or the U.S. Constitution.
  • Diversity Jurisdiction A federal court's authority to hear cases involving parties from different states where the amount in controversy exceeds a specified threshold.
  • Courts of Limited Jurisdiction Courts that can only hear specific types of cases as defined by statute or constitution. The federal courts in the U.S. court system are known as court of limited jurisdiction because not all cases can be brought there. Those that can be filed and adjudicated in the federal courts must be brought under federal question jurisdiction or diversity jurisdiction.
  • Venue The specific geographic location or jurisdiction in which a court with proper authority can hear and determine a case such as a county in a state and when the case is filed in the state court system or in a federal district for a specific state if in the federal court system, such as the U.S. District Court for the Federal District of Minnesota or the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York.
  • Certiorari A writ from a higher court requesting the records of a lower court for review. Often associated with the Supreme Court's discretion to choose its cases.
  • Due Process Fair treatment through the judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
  • Rule of Law The principle that all individuals and institutions are subject to and accountable to laws that are fairly applied and enforced, ensuring equal justice under the law.
  • Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the Constitution, safeguarding essential individual liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
  • Doctrine of Preemption: This principle asserts that federal law, when in conflict, supersedes state law.
  • Habeas Corpus: A legal procedure to challenge unlawful detention, enshrined in the Constitution to protect against arbitrary imprisonment.
  • Sovereign Immunity: The principle that the government cannot be sued without its consent.
  • Res Judicata: A legal doctrine which asserts that a matter that has been adjudicated by a competent court is conclusive and binding on the parties and cannot be relitigated.
  • Double Jeopardy Protected by the Fifth Amendment, this principle prevents an individual from being tried twice for the same crime in the same jurisdiction.
  • Ripeness & Mootness Doctrines that deal with the timing and relevance of cases. A case is "ripe" when the alleged harm is imminent or has occurred, while "mootness" refers to cases where the issue has become irrelevant or resolved before adjudication.
  • Substantive vs. Procedural Law While substantive laws provide individuals with rights and create certain duties, procedural laws outline the steps and methods to enforce those rights and duties.
  • Acquittal: Frikännande
  • Acquit To declare a defendant not guilty of a crime in a criminal proceeding.
  • Adjudicate: To make a formal judgment or decision about a problem or disputed matter.
  • Allege To assert without proof or before proving.
  • Amend: To make changes to a document, often to improve or correct it.
  • Annul To declare something (typically a marriage) as invalid, making it void.
  • Appeal To apply to a higher court for a reversal of a decision made by a lower court.
  • Arbitrate To settle a dispute between two parties outside of court.
  • Breach To break or fail to observe a law, agreement, or code of conduct.
  • Charge To formally accuse someone of a crime.
  • Codify To arrange something such as laws or rules into a formal system such as the criminal code or the Federal Rules of Evidence for people to follow.
  • Concur To express agreement with a decision or opinion.
  • Convict: To declare a defendant guilty of a crime in a criminal proceeding.
  • Cross-examine: To question a witness called by the opposing side in a trial.
  • Discovery : Before a trial starts, the parties engage in a phase called discovery, where they can gather evidence from the opposing side, preparing them for the main trial proceedings.
  • Defend: To resist an attack made on oneself; to protect from harm.
  • Dissent: To hold or express an opinion that is different from a prevailing or official position.
  • Enforce: To ensure the adherence to a rule, law, or decision.
  • File To formally submit a document or application to an official body.
  • Find To determine a fact or come to a conclusion based on evidence presented in a legal proceeding.
  • Hold: To officially determine or decide a legal point or principle in a court's opinion.
  • Infringe: To actively break the terms of a law, agreement, etc.
  • Litigate: To take a dispute to court.
  • Negotiate: To discuss or bargain to reach an agreement.
  • Nullify To make a legal agreement or decision void.
  • Obtain: To gain or secure something, often evidence or a permit.
  • Plead: To make an emotional appeal, or to present and argue for or against a case in court
  • Prosecute: To institute legal proceedings against a person or organization.
  • Repeal: To revoke or annul a law or act of Congress or a state legislature.
  • Rule: To issue an official decision or judgment on a legal matter or question by a court or judge.
  • Sue: To institute legal proceedings against someone, typically for redress
  • Testify To give evidence as a witness in a court of law.
  • Uphold: To maintain or support in the face of possible opposition.
  • Violate: To break or fail to comply with a rule or agreement.
  • Waive: To refrain from insisting on or using a right or claim.

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