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The exercise was created 2020-12-01 by WsofieW. Question count: 32.

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Normally, all words in an exercise is used when performing the test and playing the games. You can choose to include only a subset of the words. This setting affects both the regular test, the games, and the printable tests.

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  • Co-textual context The preceding linguistic material = Jack and Jill went up the hill. They stopped at the top
  • Declarative speech act A speech act that, when felicitously uttered, impacts the world in some way = Chairperson:The meeting is hereby open
  • Illocutionary force The function/purpose a speaker intends to perform in speaking = A child informing their parent: I’m leaving for school now.
  • Indirect speech act An utterance whose intended function does not match its form = A: Help yourself to mor ecake.
  • Spatial deixis The use of expressions to point to a location = A: Jack and Jill were herelast week
  • Conversational implicature Meanings intended by speakers and recovered by hearers as a result of inferences = A: Did you study for the exam?B:You missed a great party!(Implied meaning: no)
  • Face Threatening Act (FTA) Utterances that do not take others’ feelings and self-esteem into account = A: Get out of here!
  • Flouting the maxim of relevance A speaker says something that superficially is not related to the issue at hand = A: Let’s get some lunch. B: Ireally haveto study
  • Negative politeness strategies Speakers pay attention to hearers’ needs for independence so as not to impose = A: Excuse me. Would you mind terribly moving slightly so that we can squeeze by?
  • Off record Not saying anything that directly addresses one’s needs or intentions = Conspicuously looking around for some paper at the beginning of class
  • Commissive An exchange whereby a speaker’s utterance commits that speaker to future action = I promise to come to take good care of your cat
  • Preferred response The second part of an exchange which is expected from the first part = A:Would you like to come over for dinner? B:I’d love to
  • Temporal deixis The use of expressions to point to a time. = Yesterdayanother cabinet member was fired
  • Flouting the maxim of quality A speaker says something that superficially is not strictly true = A: Let’s stay home this evening.B You never want to go out!
  • Violating a maxim Intentional attempts to mislead hearers = A: I didn’t saythat I loved Wikileaks. B: This evidence shows that you did
  • Proper nouns / names type of frequent linguistic expressions are considered not to have a sense
  • connotation the attitudinal part of meaning
  • monosemy he term for when a word has only one sense
  • Sense, symbol, reference the three components of meaning
  • Definition by ostension Explaining the meaning of a word by pointing to a real-life example = Showing a fruit: “This thing is a mango”
  • Definition by typical exemplar Explaining the meaning of a word by giving typical examples, hyponyms = Catmeans tigers, ocelots, lions, cougars, etc
  • Auto-antonomy / Janus word An expression has two opposite meanings = Sanction; ‘to allow’ or ‘to prohibit’
  • Polysemy An expression has two or more related meanings = Bank; ‘financial institution’ or ‘buildingin which the financial institutionoperates
  • Referentless expression An expression that has a sensebut does not point to any real-life entity = Cleopatra’s spaceship
  • Idiomaticity The sense of an expression is not the combination of the senses of its parts = Let the cat out of the bag= ‘reveal a secret
  • Felicity conditions Conventional form that an utterance needs to have to be a successful speech act = Will the defendant please stand. [courtroom]
  • Positive politeness strategy Attending to the person’s need to be liked, accepted and feel connected = Great paper! You’re such a bright student!
  • Cooperative principle Assumption that speakers make a joint effort to make sense out of what is said = (X) Who ate the cookies?(Y) The dog looks quite happy.(X) You mean it’s not you?(Y) That’s what I mean
  • Spatial deixis Set of expressions marking the orientation of the speaker in space = The hotel is over there.
  • Off-record Suggestions and insinuations meant not to impose on the hearer = I wish I could have a glass of wine now...
  • Conversational implicature What is not part of the linguistic meaning of the utterance but is only indirectly conveyed and has to be inferred. = (X) Would you care for some cake? (Y) I won’t fit in any jeans!
  • Flouting the Maxim of Quantity Providing too much or too little information to achieve certain effect. = (X) So how was that party last Friday?(Y) Yeah, you know how such parties are...

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